Monetary Reform Needed to End Zimbabwe’s Hyperinflation

Zimbabwe 100 Trillion

The International Monetary Fund estimated that by January, Zimbabwe’s inflation rate had escalated to 150,000%. The Zimbabwean government has refused to release inflation figures in an effort to keep prices down since last June. That plan has failed as businesses have used inflation estimates to set prices.

The Zimbabwe Reserve Bank decided to increase the money supply to ease the cash crisis. Yet this will only worsen the problem. The Reserve Bank is considering issuing a new currency of a lower denomination. However, if Zimbabwe is unable to implement monetary reform along with the new currency, inflation will continue to spiral out of control.

Zimbabwe’s raging hyperinflation is a result
of a lack of revenue to cover expenditures.
The Zimbabwean government has been
unable to reduce spending, subsequently
racking up a very large fiscal deficit. A
government can finance its spending in three ways: by taxing the public, selling government bonds, or printing money.

Due to existing economic woes in Zimbabwe, it is not feasible for the government to raise more revenue by increasing taxes. Zimbabwe already has one of the highest tax rates in the world, as the average citizen is subjected to a 35% income tax. However, despite these high taxes, the Zimbabwean government provides very few social benefits for its people. Many people in Zimbabwe barely have enough money to afford basic necessities like transportation, food and rent, let alone fund their government’s fiscal expansionary policies.

Zimbabwe is unable to raise revenue through the sale of government bonds because there is no public demand for them, stemming from a lack of faith in the Zimbabwean government.

Contrarily, every year the U.S. government raises billions of dollars of revenue by selling bonds and securities to the public. The U.S. has established a reputation as a creditworthy institution, and has never defaulted on its debt obligations. Zimbabwe on the other hand, has been plagued with political unrest and financial insecurity. Investors are unwilling to risk their money in a precarious political environment in order to finance a government with questionable credit history. The Zimbabwean government is handicapped by their inability to raise revenue by issuing debt.

Unable to levy taxes or sell bonds, the Reserve Bank has resorted to printing money as a solution to their fiscal woes. The inflation rate has drastically increased from 3,700% in April of 2007 to 66,000% in December of 2007 to 150,000% in January of 2008. Zimbabwe used to be one of Africa’s most prosperous nations, however, poor monetary policy has destroyed the economy and unleashed hyperinflation.

The central bank’s loosening of monetary policy not only finances the fiscal and trade deficits, but also targets Zimbabwe’s past decade of negative GDP growth. In 2000, Zimbabwe’s president, Robert Mugabe, enacted land reform that severely hurt the country’s maize productions. The production of this staple crop, dropped by as much as 75% as a result of the reforms. This had a strong negative impact on rural incomes, exports, and food securities. Unemployment reached 80%, manufacturing fell 51% from 1997 to 2005, and exports declined by a half from 2001 to 2005. As a result, aggregate demand and the economy’s total output decreased significantly. The Reserve Bank’s policy theoretically could shift aggregate demand back to long run output. However, increasing money supply has only resulted in hyperinflation and an exacerbation of the Zimbabwe’s economic recession.

Historically, countries that have suffered from hyperinflation have resolved the problem by restoring faith in their currency and by enacting strict monetary reform. Zimbabwe must end its economic misrule by beginning to deal with its hyperinflation.